University of Technology Sydney

99641 Point Location and Acupuncture Anatomy

Warning: The information on this page is indicative. The subject outline for a particular session, location and mode of offering is the authoritative source of all information about the subject for that offering. Required texts, recommended texts and references in particular are likely to change. Students will be provided with a subject outline once they enrol in the subject.

Subject handbook information prior to 2022 is available in the Archives.

UTS: Science: Life Sciences
Credit points: 6 cp
Result type: Pass fail, no marks

There are course requisites for this subject. See access conditions.

Description

This multi-modular, workshop-based subject covers the location, depth, action, special precautions and contra-indications of the major acupuncture points. It also covers various aspects of radiographic examinations.

Students learn through lectures, wet labs and workshops. They learn how to accurately locate approximately 223 major acupuncture points; use anatomical and radiographic terminology; interpret radiographic reports; safely needle high risk points; identify structures under the acupuncture points; identify the various types of scans and how to interpret their reports.

Subject learning objectives (SLOs)

Upon successful completion of this subject students should be able to:

1. Locate, through use of a constructed tape measure and surface palpation, 60 Command points, 24 Back Shu/Front Mu points of the organs and approximately 139 other major points
2. Identify, palpate and mark all the surface anatomical structures needed to locate the points
3. Identify all the high risk points for needling and justify the risk through identification of their substructures
4. Use correct anatomical terminology for the underlying musculoskeletal, neural and cardiovascular structures of the points
5. Suggest alternative needling strategies for the high risk points including depth and angle
6. List the precautions and contra-indications for the acupuncture points
7. Use correct radiographic terminology
8. Differentiate plain film densities in relation to skeletal and soft tissue
9. Identify radiographic views and interpret common structural anomalies
10. Interpret a sample radiographic report
11. Explain the clinical indications for requesting a CT, MRI, ultrasound and nuclear imaging technique

Contribution to the development of graduate attributes

1. Disciplinary knowledge and its appropriate application
Students undertake the study of acupuncture point locations, sub-structures and energetic functions in an organised and systematic manner. The study of point function and its current clinical application is based in “classical” literature and current evidence-based research. Tutors lead student discussions on point functions in order to gain a better understanding of how points work and how to achieve effective therapeutic outcomes.

The detailed study of human anatomy contributes to an integrated eastern/ western understanding of Chinese Medicine and will assist graduates to communicate with other health professionals and health related industry such as health funds and worker's compensation.

3. Professional skills and their appropriate application
Accurate point location is vital to clinical efficacy. Students review point location under the supervision of tutors and are encouraged to form self-study groups in order to reinforce their knowledge and engender a sense of professional collegial community.

As students engage in practical point location exercises, they are required to disrobe. Proper draping and respect for personal boundaries is mandatory.

6. Communication skills

The weekly tutorials teach the student to clearly communicate their intentions to palpate the channels and points, some of which require particular attention to modesty and appropriate draping. Professional and ethical practice necessitates the development of an ability to listen and be aware of patient/peer sensitivities.

The radiographic study and grasp of its terminology facilitates professional communication with other health care practitioners and health related industry such as health funds and worker's compensation.

Teaching and learning strategies

Orientation Week Preparation:

Online Post Enrolment Language Assessment (OPELA): a mandatory language task to determine academic language and literacy to successfully meet the Chinese Medicine Board’s proficiency requirement for registration. This task will be conducted as part of the Chinese Medicine Foundations 1 subject. If not enroled in this subject, please notify your tutor.

Download from UTSOnline, complete and hand in the “Getting to Know You” survey

View UTSOnline Videos: for Point Location, Anatomy & Radiographic Interpretations

Collect the point location workbook and anatomy class notes for home study,

Module 1 Point Location

This module is conducted as a face-to-face, flipped workshop where students work in pairs to palpate the channels, locate and mark the acupuncture points using anatomical landmarks and/or the specially constructed measuring tape.

Students are expected to complete weekly pre-study at home prior to each class. The following resources are provided:

UTSOnline series of short instructional videos demonstrating: how to construct a point location measuring tape, how to construct a set of point location flash cards, a sample overview on how to mark points on the LUNG channel, an interactive quiz on how to locate Five Element points, a short pronunciation video of general Chinese Medicine terminology, and a mock exam.

A point location workbook which should be filled out and brought to class each week

A completed weekly pre-study self-assessment form to be completed and handed to the tutor prior to the start of each class. The pre-study form is intended to identify challenging points discovered during home study and provide a description why they are challenging.

What to bring to each class:

Personally constructed tape measures

Completed flash cards to date

Workbook with completed weekly pre-study

Point location manual

Coloured non-toxic body pencils in red, yellow, blue, white, green and black

Interactive Feedback covering the accuracy and technique used for locating the points is immediate during the class. NOTE: Tutors will use your weekly pre-study self- assessment form in order to focus in-class time on areas the student cohort find challenging.

Pre-Census date feedback: Several classes will have been completed prior to Census date, which forms the most effective feedback for consolidating the student’s study plan. There is an UTSOnline mock exam video which details the exam process well before the first exams are experienced.

Module 2 Acupuncture Anatomy

This module is also conducted as a face-to-face, multi-approach, flipped lecture/workshop where students work in groups to identify anatomical structures, interpret radiographic films and discuss alternative needling approaches to high risk points. There are selected readings, on multiple topics of choice, which require summarisation and use of academic language.

The following resources are provided:

Wet lab:

UTSOnline links for a virtual review of the body regions

8 regions X 15 videos per region

Radiographical lectures:

In-class quizzes to identify plain film structures and anomalies

Anatomy Lectures:

Group work on plastic model

Readings:

and extensive selection of online readings covering a number of topics relating to anatomy and needling.
Interactive Feedback covering the accuracy for locating specified structures is immediate during the class.

Pre-Census date feedback: Several classes in anatomy and point location will have been completed prior to Census date in which formative feedback is provided. This is primarily in a verbal format.

Content (topics)

Module 1 Point Location

All acupuncture points will be located during practical sessions. The points for examination will be selected from the following:
1. Upper yin channels

  • all points

2. Upper yang channels

  • Large Intestine - all points to elbow (LI11) plus LI15, LI19, LI20
  • Small Intestine - all points to elbow (SI8) plus SI10, S111, SI18, SI19
  • Triple Energiser - all points to elbow (TE10), TE14, TE15, TE17, TE21, TE23

3. Lower yin channels

  • Spleen - all points to the knee (SP9), plus SP12, SP15, SP21
  • Kidney - all points to the knee (KI10), KI11, KI16, KI21, KI27
  • Liver - all points to the knee (LR8), LR12, LR13, LR14

4. Lower yang channels

  • Stomach - all facial points: ST9, ST12, ST17, ST25, ST30, all points between the knee (ST35) and the last point of the channel (ST45).
  • Bladder - points BL1, BL2, BL3, BL4, BL10 to BL30 inclusive, BL41, BL43, BL52, BL39, BL40,BL57 to BL67 inclusive.
  • Gall Bladder - points GB1, GB2, GB8, GB12, GB14, GB20, GB21, GB25, GB27, GB29, GB30, GB31, GB34 to GB44 inclusive.

5. Conception Vessel and Governor Vessel

  • points CV1 TO CV12 inclusive, CV15, CV17, CV22, CV24 GV1, GV3, GV4, GV14, GV20, GV24, GV26

Module 2 Acupuncture Anatomy

  • Students should refer to the program notes below as to which anatomical areas will be covered each week. In addition to general anatomy, the structural anatomy specific to major acupuncture points will be examined in detail. This includes the examination of skeletal, soft tissue, tendon and cartilage, nerves, blood vessels and organs structures.

Assessment

Assessment task 1: Module 1: Point Location Mid Semester Practical Exam

Intent:

The following Graduate Attributes are addressed in this task:

1. Disciplinary knowledge and its appropriate application

3. Professional skills and their appropriate application

Objective(s):

This assessment task addresses subject learning objective(s):

1 and 2

This assessment task contributes to the development of course intended learning outcome(s):

.0 and .0

Weight: Mandatory task that does not contribute to subject mark
Length:

23 minutes will be alloted overall.

Criteria:

(GA1) Knowledge: Accurate location and description of the points including relevant anatomical landmarks, "cun" measurements and statement of characteristics/functions.

(GA3): Skills: Correct use of tape measures and anatomical landmarks

Assessment task 2: Module 1: Point Location End Semester Practical Exam

Intent:

The following Graduate Attributes are addressed in this task:

1. Disciplinary knowledge and its appropriate application

3. Professional skills and their appropriate application

Objective(s):

This assessment task addresses subject learning objective(s):

1 and 2

This assessment task contributes to the development of course intended learning outcome(s):

.0 and .0

Weight: Mandatory task that does not contribute to subject mark
Length:

23 minutes

The first three minutes will be used for marking anatomical landmarks such as the spinal vertebrae (C7, T7, T12), medial border of the scapula, iliac crest, lumbo-sacral joint, PSIS, etc

Criteria:

(GA1) Knowledge: Accurate location and description of the points including relevant anatomical landmarks, "cun" measurements and statement of the characteristics/functions.

(GA3) Skills: Correct use of tape measure and anatomical landmarks.

Assessment task 3: Module 2 Anatomy Reading Summaries

Intent:

The following Graduate Attributes are addressed in this task:

1. Disciplinary knowledge and its appropriate application

6. Communication skills

Objective(s):

This assessment task addresses subject learning objective(s):

3, 4 and 6

This assessment task contributes to the development of course intended learning outcome(s):

.0 and .0

Weight: Mandatory task that does not contribute to subject mark
Length:

2-3 pages (500-1000 words) for each article

Criteria:

(GA1) Knowledge: Accuracy and depth of the material presented.

(GA6) Communication Skills: The summaries must be in the student's own words and demonstrate early stage English language skills of reading, comprehension and writing. Assignments must be re-submitted if found to be inadequate.

Assessment task 4: Module 2 Anatomy End Semester Exam

Intent:

The following Graduate Attributes are addressed in this task:

1. Disciplinary knowledge and its appropriate application

3. Professional skills and their appropriate application

Objective(s):

This assessment task addresses subject learning objective(s):

10, 11, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9

This assessment task contributes to the development of course intended learning outcome(s):

.0 and .0

Weight: 100%
Length:

2 hours plus 10 minutes reading time.

Criteria:

(GA1) Knowledge: Accuracy of the answers

(GA3) Skills and Application: degree of recognition and mitigation of... safety issues

A mark of greater than 50% must be achieved in the exam to pass the subject

Minimum requirements

Students must pass both modules to pass this subject.

Module 1 Point Location
Each point location exam consists of 25 points. 85% of the points tested (22 out of 25) must be correct to pass a point location exam. This includes both location and functional descriptions. Each exam lasts for 20 and is timed. You must pass two (2) of the three (3) point location exams to be deemed component and to pass this module.

Conditions of Exam Failure:
• Students failing to correctly locate 22 points within the specified time in any one of the point location exams will be failed.
• Under normal circumstances, only two exams are required (mid and end of semester). However should a student fail one of these exams, a supplemental exam will be offered.

Note: Supplemental exams will not be available for consecutive failures in mid and end semester exams t In this situation a Fail grade will be recorded against the subject.

No exams will be offered past the formal exam period.

Mid Semester Exam Failure: There is no supplementary examination attached to the mid semester exam. Students who miss or fail this exam will be required to sit two (2) point location exams (end of semester plus supplementary) at the end of semester. Both exams will need to be passed in order to pass the subject.

End of Semester Exam Failure: Students who pass their mid semester exam but miss or fail their end of semester exam will be able to sit the supplemental exam.

There will be no additional exams offered beyond those listed above.

Failing to attend a rostered exam will count as a Fail.

The “practical” assessments within this subject are ongoing and based on meeting competencies to the satisfaction of the tutors and module/subject co-ordinators. Students failing to meet competency standards (modules 1&2) or threshold assessments (module 2) may receive an X grade fail or where appropriate, a loss of marks.

Module 2 Acupuncture Anatomy
Assessment for this module consists of two activities. They must all be completed to pass this module.
You must achieve a mark greater than 50% in the end semester exam

• X Grade
X > 45 Unsatisfactory performance in an assessment item for which a pass is compulsory. This grade indicates to the Results Ratification Committee those students who have failed a subject overall with a mark of 45 or more, but who are ineligible to receive a Conceded Pass because of their failure in a compulsory assessment item. There is no formal upper limit for this grade.

An X grade may be awarded by the subject coordinator for a failure to complete any of the threshold tasks within the specified times or, in consultation with the clinical manager, in relation to a
students competency within clinical placements and or practical classes.

• 80% attendance rate is required to pass this subject.
Special considerations in relation to attendance rates cannot be considered as the classes are
practical in focus. Though it is understood that you may not be able to attend class due to illness or extraordinary circumstances, lack of attendance means that your competencies can not be adequately assessed norand addressed should they not be satisfactory. Consequently attendance is mandatory.

Required texts

Module 1 Point Location

Rogers C. & Rogers C. (2012), Point Location and Point Dynamics Manual, Acupuncture Colleges Australia LTD, Sydney

All point location exams are based upon this text.


NOTE: This text includes but is not limited to the World Health Organisation (WHO) endorsed nomenclature and locations. The 2012 revised edition contains additional information on internal channel connections, the Eight Extraordinary channels, cutaneous and Luo mai, all of which will be covered in later subjects. In addition, a workbook is specifically designed to be used with this text and will be issued as class notes.

Module 2 Anatomy

Zhengguo, Y. (2003) Anatomical Atlas of Acupuncture Points. A Photo Location Guide. Donica Publishing: St Abans, United Kingdom.

Other resources

Module 1 Point Location

  • Beil, A.,2010, Trail Guide to the Body,2nd edn, Books of Discovery, Boulder
  • Deadman, P. and Al-Khafaji, M. 2007, A Manual of Acupuncture, 2nd Edn. Journal of Chinese Medicine Publications: London.
  • Ellis A, Wiseman N & Boss K 1989, Grasping the Wind: An exploration into the meaning of Chinese Acupuncture Point Names, Paradigm Publications.
  • Guo, C, 2008 Anatomical illustration of acupuncture points, People's Medical Publishing House, Beijing.
  • Hatton C L 2004 Acupuncture Point Compendium, College of Traditional Chinese Acupuncture.
  • Hecker, H et al 2005 Practice of Acupuncture : point location, techniques, treatment, Thieme, New York.
  • Jarmey C & Bouratinos I. 2008 A Practical Guide to Acupoints. Lotus Publishing.
  • Quirico P E (2006) Teaching Atlas of Acupuncture: Channels and Points Volume 1. Thieme, New York.
  • Quirico P E (2007) Teaching Atlas of Acupuncture: Channels and Points Volume 2. Thieme, New York.
  • Rogers, C & C, 2012, Point Location & Point Dynamics Manual, 2010 edn, Australian College of Acupuncturists Ltd., Sydney
  • Shangdong Medical College and College of TCM (1982), Anatomical Atlas of Chinese Acupuncture Points, Shangdong: Shangdong Science and Technology Press.
  • Wang,J, Robertson,J 2008, Applied Channel Theory in Chinese Medicine, Eastland Press, Seattle
  • WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations in the Western Pacific Region 2008 (Note Rogers and Rogers 2008 edition includes WHO locations)
  • Yang J.S. (ed.) 1982, The Way to Locate Acu-points, Foreign Languages Press, Beijing

Module 2 Anatomy

Background Reading

  • Basmajian, J. (1982). Primary Anatomy (3rd Ed.). Williams and Wilkins: Baltimore.
  • Calais-Germain, B. (1993) Anatomy of Movement. Eastland Press: Seattle.
  • Chen, E-C. (1995). Cross-sectional Anatomy of Acupoints. Churchill Livingstone: Edinburgh.
  • Chen, J. (1982). Anatomical Atlas of Chinese Acupuncture Points. Shandong Science and Technology Press: Jinan, China.
  • Deadman, P. and Al-Khafaji, M. (1998). A Manual of Acupuncture. Journal of Chinese Medicine Publications: London.
  • Gao, H. (1999). The Atlas of Layer Anatomy of Acupoints. Foreign Language Press, Beijing (615.892 GAOH)
  • Gunn, C. (2002). 4th Ed Bones and Joints. A Guide for Students. Churchill Livingstone: Edinburgh.. (Call No. 612.75 Gunn)
  • Guyot, J. (1981) Atlas of Human Limb Joints. Springer-Verlag: Berlin.
  • Kapit, W. and Elson, L.M. (1993). (2nd Ed.). The Anatomy Coloring Book. Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers:New York.
  • Lumley, J.S.P. (1990). Surface Anatomy. The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Examination. Churchill Livingstone: Edinburgh.
  • Palastanga, N., Derek F. and Soames, R. (2002) (4th Ed) Anatomy and human movement : structure and function .Oxford :Butterworth-Heinemann. (612.76 PALA)
  • Rogers, C. & C. 2012. Point Location and Point Dynamics Manual. Australian College of Acupuncturists Ltd, Sydney.
  • Zhu, H-Z. (2006) Running a Safe and Successful Acupuncture Clinic. Churchill Livingstone: Edinburgh. (615.892 ZHUH)

Web Resources ·

Readings for Assessment

  • Cui, H. et al. (2004). 'Topography of Acupoint Jianjing (GB21)'. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 24 (2), 138-139
  • Field, D. (2001). Palpation: definition, application and practice. In Anatomy Palpation and Surface Markings (3rd Ed.). Butterworth Heinemann: Oxford.
  • Grant, A. and Ma, B-Y. (2003). 'The Safe Use of Difficult and Dangerous Acupuncture Points'. Journal of Chinese Medicine, 72, 11-15.
  • Hong, Z. (2006). Organs in Running a Safe and Successful Acupuncture Clinic. Churchill Livingstone: Edinburgh
  • Kendall, D. (2003). Muscle Distributions in The Tao of Chinese medicine. Oxford: Oxford Press
  • Langevin, H.M. and Yandow, J.A. (2002). "Relationship of Acupuncture Points and Meridians to Connective Tissue Planes". The Anatomical Record, 269, 257-265.
  • Oschman, J.L. (2003). More clues from acupuncture in Energy medicine in therapeutics and human performance . Edinburgh ; New York : Butterworth Heinemann.
  • Peuker, E. and Cummings, M. (2003). 'Anatomy for the Acupuncturist- Facts and Fiction 1: The head and neck region'. Acupuncture in Medicine, 21 (1-2), 2-8.
  • Peuker, E. and Cummings, M. (2003). 'Anatomy for the Acupuncturist- Facts and Fiction 2: The chest, abdomen and back'. Acupuncture in Medicine, 21 (3), 72-79.
  • Peuker, E. and Cummings, M. (2003). 'Anatomy for the Acupuncturist- Facts and Fiction 3: Upper and lower extremity'. Acupuncture in Medicine, 21 (4), 122-132.
  • Simons, D. (2002). 'Understanding effective treatment of myofacial trigger points'. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapy, April.
  • Wilcox, L. (2006). 'What is an Acu-moxa Point?' Journal of Chinese Medicine, 80, p.5-9.