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96028 Binocular Vision and Ocular Motility 1

Warning: The information on this page is indicative. The subject outline for a particular session, location and mode of offering is the authoritative source of all information about the subject for that offering. Required texts, recommended texts and references in particular are likely to change. Students will be provided with a subject outline once they enrol in the subject.

Subject handbook information prior to 2020 is available in the Archives.

UTS: Health (GEM)
Credit points: 6 cp

Subject level:

Postgraduate

Result type: Grade and marks

There are course requisites for this subject. See access conditions.

Description

This subject provides a conceptual and practical framework for understanding and examining the sensory and motor processes that mediate binocular vision. Students study the anatomical, physiological and optical principles underlying normal eye movements and single binocular vision. An understanding of how the coordination of the eyes may be modified by accommodation and associated accommodation/convergence relationships is acquired. Inquiry-based learning emphasising the development of basic clinical reasoning informed by research evidence, is applied to clinical case studies. Through this, students are led to discuss the diagnosis and management of common ocular conditions related to heterophoria, strabismus, amblyopia and accommodation and convergence defects. In this context, students learn fundamental orthoptic procedures used to demonstrate normal and defective binocular vision and for the diagnosis and measurement of ocular motility disorders. This subject provides essential knowledge and skills that forms a foundation for further studies in this area of orthoptic practice.

Subject learning objectives (SLOs)

28.4. Demonstrate beginner level clinical skills in common orthoptic investigative methods and therapeutic techniques, and accurately interpret observations and test results, relating these to the diagnosis and management of orthoptic conditions.
28.3. Integrate sound clinical reasoning with theoretical knowledge and current evidence, to analyse orthoptic patient cases and develop appropriate and effective investigation and therapeutic management plans.
28.2. Interpret patient presenting signs and symptoms and link these to clinical data, drawing on knowledge of disorders affecting binocularity and ocular motility, to formulate appropriate diagnoses and plans for the investigation of these conditions.
28.1. Use knowledge of normal binocular vision and ocular motility including, the underlying anatomy and physiology, to determine the impact of conditions on normal development and function.
28.5. Utilise effective communication skills for the explanation of tests, clinical conditions and orthoptic therapeutic procedures in terms that can be readily understood by a diverse range of patients, while demonstrating a respectful and compassionate approach to patient care, particularly for children and their families.

Course intended learning outcomes (CILOs)

The learning outcomes for this subject are as follows:

  • Demonstrate professional behaviour and expertise in the delivery of safe, competent and responsible practice for the benefit and care of patients and the wider community. (.01)
  • Reflect on knowledge, attitudes and skills acquired for the evaluation and integration of emerging evidence into practice, promoting the growth of personal and professional learning and the education of others. (.02)
  • Analyse and synthesise knowledge of health sciences concepts and theory, and apply skills of scientific research and clinical reasoning to support decision-making in orthoptic practice. (.03)
  • Be an advocate for their patient, demonstrating sound, ethical, compassionate and respectful patient-focused care while acknowledging responsibility for personal health and wellbeing. (.05)
  • Effectively and accurately communicate to patients, their families, carers and members of the healthcare team and contributing to the wider role of health education and its promotion, acknowledging and adapting communication to address cultural and linguistic diversity. (.06)
  • Demonstrate respect and value for diverse ways of knowing, being and doing, in particular recognising the diversity of Indigenous Australians while critically reflecting upon the impact of ongoing colonisation and its pervasive discourse on their health and wellbeing, and integrating this knowledge into practice. (.08)

Contribution to the development of graduate attributes

Binocular Vision and Ocular Motility 1 is the first subject on binocular vision and ocular motility in the Masters of Orthoptics course and introduces foundational concepts related to normal binocular vision and ocular motility and some common disorders that may interrupt normal development and functioning of these systems. This subject also aims to prepare students for participating in clinical placement by teaching the fundamental orthoptic techniques for the assessment of strabismus and ocular motility. Foundational learning in this subject is directly built on in subsequent semesters in 96032 Binocular Vision and Ocular Motility 2, 96036 Neurological Disorders, 96037 Therapy, Management and Rehabilitation and 9640 Advanced Professional Practice.

In addition, this subject contributes to the development of the following graduate attributes:

• Lifelong Learning

• Professional Capacity

• Cultural Competence

Teaching and learning strategies

Preparation for Learning: Students will be provided with the details of preparation activities each week through the subject’s UTSOnline site. Activities are designed to help students prepare for their learning in lectures and workshops by engaging them with textbook, journal and other readings, videos, online resources, quizzes and short answer questions and group discussion. In addition, clinical practical classes have pre-practical reading and questions attached, which are expected to be completed prior to attending these classes to ensure maximal time can be spent on hands-on practice.

Active Lectures: Lectures provide an introduction to topic content each week and guest lecturers are invited to share their professional expertise on particular topic areas at relevant times throughout the session. Lectures are active and require students to engage and participate in the analysis of case presentations, quizzes and trivia, class discussion and debate and other active and collaborative learning methods.

Case-based Learning: Case-based learning is a form of problem-based learning (PBL) and a key learning strategy used in workshops. Authentic patient clinical cases are analysed individually and in small (POD) groups. Through this students develop skill in clinical reasoning and practice the application of theoretical knowledge gained in lectures and practical classes to differentially diagnose and develop appropriate plans for the investigation and management of patients with a variety of ocular conditions.

Research-integrated Learning: Taking an evidence-based approach to the investigation and management of patient cases is essential for effective patient care and an important skill for Orthoptic students to develop. Current research is integrated into content provided in lectures and pre-work and students are provided opportunities in workshop classes and through assessment to read, discuss and utilise current research in ophthalmology and orthoptics in the context of evidence-based patient care.

Collaborative Learning: As health professionals, teamwork is an essential skill to ensure patients are managed appropriately within interdisciplinary teams of health professionals. Teamwork skills are developed through collaboration with peers in active lectures and workshops, conducted in collaborative POD classrooms, as well as, when performing clinical skills in practical classes.

Reflective Learning: Students are encouraged to critically reflect on their learning throughout the subject to identify areas where they may improve their performance and to assist in the development of lifelong learning skills. Specific activities where reflective learning is encouraged are; self-evaluation of clinical skill performance in practical classes against OSCE marking criteria and skill achievement checklists and through post lecture/workshop review of learning questions on UTSOnline.

Practice-based Learning: Clinical practical classes are conducted in small groups (max. 12 students) each week for this subject. These provide students with an opportunity to learn and develop competency in clinical skills relevant to orthoptic practice. These sessions are entirely practice-based and following a short demonstration of the skill, students are closely supervised and provided instruction and feedback, as they participate in hands-on practice of skills, including the use of specialised orthoptic and ophthalmic equipment and technology.

Authentic and Simulated Clinical Experiences: Clinical practical classes are conducted in our dedicated teaching clinic rooms and provide students with access to a simulated clinical environment including, key technology used in professional orthoptic practice. Students participate in role play and simulation of various ocular conditions using prisms and other orthoptic equipment. Students are additionally shown patient videos to demonstrate conditions and test responses in lectures, workshops and practical classes.

Self-directed Practice: Clinical practical classes provide students with supervised practice of clinical skills, however, to attain a sufficient level of competency in clinical skills, self-directed practice outside of class time is required. As a general guide, students are expected to spend approximately 1 hour of self-directed practice in the orthoptic dedicated teaching clinics per subject. This is important preparation for clinical placement and your OSCE exams.

Ongoing Feedback: In-class verbal feedback is an important teaching and learning strategy employed throughout the subject. Students are provided with immediate feedback relating to the performance of clinical skills in clinical practical classes and relating to clinical reasoning and understanding of key concepts by staff facilitating workshops. Opportunities for verbal formative feedback on assignments are given prior to final submission and detailed summative feedback following final submission. In week 14, Mock OSCE exams are held to provide students with formative feedback on clinical skills prior to the OSCE exams.

Content (topics)

Binocular Vision and Ocular Motility 1 is the first subject on binocular vision and ocular motility in the Master of Orthoptics course and introduces foundational concepts related to normal binocular vision and ocular motility and some common disorders that may interrupt normal development and functioning of these systems. This subject also aims to prepare students for participating in clinical placement by teaching the fundamental orthoptic techniques for the assessment of strabismus and ocular motility. Foundational learning in this subject is directly built on in subsequent semesters in 96032 Binocular Vision and Ocular Motility 2, 96036 Neurological Disorders, 96037 Therapy, Management and Rehabilitation and 96040 Advanced Professional Practice.

Topics covered in this subject include; normal binocular vision and stereopsis, the anatomy of extraocular muscles and the physiology of ocular movements, heterophoria, basic concomitant strabismus, convergence and accommodation, aesthenopia, convergence insufficiency, anomalies of accommodation, suppression and amblyopia, basic orthoptic investigative tests and their interpretation and orthoptic treatment methods and management plans.

Assessment

Assessment task 1: Self-Assessment Assignment

Intent:

This research assignment provides students with the opportunity to practise skills related to the assessment and measurement of binocular vision, ocular posture and ocular motor skill and extends students' understanding of normal population variation in binocular vision and ocular motility test measures and the impact of test factors and other ocular conditions on such measures. In addition, this assessment is designed to develop students' clinical reasoning through the analysis of a patient case and evidence-based practice skills through use of the scholarly literature and the development of a management plan.

Objective(s):

This task is aligned with the following subject learning objectives:

28.1, 28.2, 28.3 and 28.5

This task is aligned with the following course learning outcomes:

.01, .02, .03, .05, .06 and .08

Type: Report
Groupwork: Individual
Weight: 30%
Length:

Research report: 1500 words

Case analysis: 1500 words

Criteria:

See criteria provided in class and on UTSOnline.

Assessment task 2: OSCE (must-pass component)

Intent:

An OSCE is an assessment format that enables students to demonstrate components of understanding, clinical and equipment skill, clinical reasoning and communication that are not readily assessed in a written format. These exams will allow the student to demonstrate knowledge they have gained across the subject through lectures, clinical practicals and through self-directed practice.

Objective(s):

This task is aligned with the following subject learning objectives:

28.2, 28.3, 28.4 and 28.5

This task is aligned with the following course learning outcomes:

.01 and .06

Type: Examination
Groupwork: Individual
Weight: 30%
Length:

30 minutes approximately

Criteria:

This exam aims to assess the student in a structure that best assesses their competency for participation in a future clinical working environment, such as clinical placements. As such, the primary level of competency must relate to the patient’s safety for all examinable procedures. Students must also demonstrate that they are able to effectively complete the set tasks within the given timeframe. At this stage of the course, emphasis will be given to good levels of patient instruction and communication, demonstration that tests are conducted in a safe and effective manner so that conclusions can be drawn from findings and that results are accurately recorded. Prior to the exam students will be given the criteria for individual examinable skills.

Assessment task 3: Written Examiniation

Intent:

The written exam will aid determination of whether you have met the learning objectives of this subject and will give a summative assessment of your level of knowledge and understanding of the content.

Objective(s):

This task is aligned with the following subject learning objectives:

28.1, 28.2 and 28.3

This task is aligned with the following course learning outcomes:

.01, .02, .03, .05 and .08

Type: Examination
Groupwork: Individual
Weight: 40%
Length:

2 hours and 10 minutes reading time

Criteria:

Marks awarded for individual questions will be stated in the exam.

Minimum requirements

Students are required to attend 90% of scheduled lectures. Lectures presented by guest lecturers will be compulsory to attend. Clinical practicals will be scheduled on weeks 1-14. It is expected that students attend 100% of scheduled clinical practicals. Students must submit all assessment tasks and achieve a minimum of 50% of the subject’s total marks overall. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is a compulsory component of assessment and students must achieve a minimum of 50% and perform all skills safely to pass the subject

Required texts

Coursework Assessments Policy

Coursework Assessments Procedures

Graduate School of Health Policy, Guidelines and Procedures (login required)

Recommended texts

Students will be required to access journals through the UTS library and reference appropriate journal articles. Specific references may be indicated, if required via UTSOnline throughout semester by the coordinator or lecturers. In addition, the following texts may be of use:

Ansons, AM & Davis H, (2014) Diagnosis and Management of Ocular Motility Disorders 4th ed. Wiley-Blackwell

Rowe, FJ (2012) Clinical Orthoptics. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken

Stidwill, D & Fletcher, R. (2010) Normal Binocular Vision: Theory, Investigation and Practical Aspects. Wiley-Blackwell

Hoyt CS & Taylor D (2013) Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 4th ed. Saunders Ltd.

Von Noorden (2002) Binocular Vision and Ocular Motility: Theory and Management of Strabismus 6th ed. Mosby