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84111 Understanding Three-dimensional Form

Warning: The information on this page is indicative. The subject outline for a particular session, location and mode of offering is the authoritative source of all information about the subject for that offering. Required texts, recommended texts and references in particular are likely to change. Students will be provided with a subject outline once they enrol in the subject.

Subject handbook information prior to 2019 is available in the Archives.

UTS: Design, Architecture and Building: Design
Credit points: 6 cp

Subject level:

Undergraduate

Result type: Grade and marks

There are course requisites for this subject. See access conditions.

Description

This is a core subject taken in year 1 of the Bachelor of Design in Integrated Product Design. Throughout the degree, students are expected to construct simple models, make test components and possibly working prototypes. This practical, hands-on subject sets the foundation for this work. It covers a number of methods for model making along with use of materials and tools and the related environment heath and safety (EH&S) issues. The subject includes workshop accreditation required for the use of power tools and equipment. Exercises involving the construction of three-dimensional objects form the major part of the subject.

Subject learning objectives (SLOs)

On successful completion of this subject, students should be able to:

1. Measure, mark out, form, shape, cut, construct and assemble 3D shapes using a diverse array of techniques.
2. Understand how to creatively design and construct a variety of 3D physical forms.
3. Analyse and understand how to appropriately and effectively use a wide variety of materials and processes for creating 3D physical forms.
4. Use communication strategies that demonstrate various scale ratios for 3D objects as they apply to Integrated Product Design.
5. Competently unify aesthetic detailing with structural form as it applies to Integrated Product Design.

Course intended learning outcomes (CILOs)

This subject also contributes to the following Course Intended Learning Outcomes:

  • Demonstrated engagement with ideas and learning (A.1)
  • Effective visual communication skills (C.2)
  • Effective tangible 3D representation (C.3)
  • Demonstration of aesthetic sensibility (I.3)
  • Accuracy, rigour and care (P.2)

Teaching and learning strategies

This subject uses an inquiry-based learning strategy that involves students in researching and developing their own solutions to complex design challenges. The subject uses design professionals as studio leaders and lecturers to ensure that all content and tasks are relevant to current professional practice in a global context. This subject includes active learning experiences where ongoing feedback is provided weekly in all on campus engagements such as interactive lecture sessions and labs. It is therefore imperative that students attend all on campus engagements. The subject is comprised of one 4h studio per week. The knowledge, relevant to the subject, is delivered in studio and will enable students to work on their design projects. The knowledge provided includes information on the principles of mechanical workshop activities, drawing and model-making, as they apply to Integrated Product Design. Prior to studios, students will be required to prepare questions or complete tasks for the studio leader relating to the design projects they are working on. Students will be able to do this by reviewing reference material relevant to specific weeks. Where to find the relevant reference material is listed in the Program. In the studios, students will work on their design projects with the studio leader. At the beginning of each studio, the studio leader will discuss with the entire group the challenges they are facing with their projects. The studio leader will then prompt students faced by similar challenges to form small groups to facilitate collaborative discussions. The studio leader will be reviewing the work weekly and will provide feedback verbally.

It shall be the student's responsibility to record any feedback provided in studio. During pin-up presentations students will be expected to actively participate in collaborative peer review feedback exercises. Grades, marks and feedback on final design submissions will be provided through Review.

Content (topics)

This subject addresses the following issues and topic areas:

  • An introduction to why three-dimensional models and prototypes are made and tested.
  • A series of practical workshops and demonstrations in designing and constructing three-dimensional forms.
  • The use of various techniques employed when manipulating and assembling a diverse range of materials.

Assessment

Assessment task 1: Investigation into volume using additive and subtractive methods - Foam Model

Intent:

(Please read this Task in conjunction with the additional Assessment 1 project documentation provided in the subject documents area of UTS Online.)

Aim

Form studies in polystyrene foam are an integral research method for evaluating and progressing the aesthetic and ergonomic characteristics of a particular product design. In a given project, countless variations may be required in order to iterate, explore and progress a design proposal. In your first assessment task, you are to concentrate on developing foam-modelling skills through creation of a form study from supplied drawings. Note, the drawings themselves have been created through a reverse-engineering process with dimensions taken directly from the commercially available artefact.

Program

Download and read the Assessment Task 1 drawings. Print your drawings at 100% scale (do not fit to page) on the correct sized paper. Prepare questions to ask your lecturer.

Week 1 – This week will concentrate on demonstration of the essential techniques to construct foam models through addition and subtractive means. Practice using hand tools, templates and the hot wire cutter. Furthermore, there will be a discussion on how to interpret the drawings in order to create an accurate form study. Such topics will include: critical dimensions, omission of detail, materials selection and workshop processes.

Week 2 – Create cardboard templates and begin cutting your foam components with the hot wire cutter. Continue to refine, test fit and assemble your components through temporary means.

Week 3 – Continue refining your components through subtractive means and create the final assembly. Work on surface finish and details.

Deliverables

These items are due at the conclusion of the project:

  • Completed Model

Requirements

The following requirements apply to the making of your model:

  • Understand the requirement for accuracy and attention to detail in the production of models and prototypes.
  • Develop an understanding of the techniques to create 3D forms from 2D documentation.
  • Develop an understanding of modelmaking materials used in product design

Readings

Readings relevant to the Assessment Task have been provided on UTS Online as an integral resource. Refer to the program and your studio leader for advice concerning the appropriate reading to complete for each class.

Suggested Texts for This Assessment Task

Hallgrimsson, B. 2012, Prototyping and modelmaking for product design, Laurence King, London.

Wong, W. 1977, Principles of three-dimensional design, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York.

Objective(s):

This task addresses the following subject learning objectives:

2, 4 and 5

This task also addresses the following course intended learning outcomes that are linked with a code to indicate one of the five CAPRI graduate attribute categories (e.g. C.1, A.3, P.4, etc.):

A.1, C.3 and P.2

Type: Laboratory/practical
Groupwork: Individual
Weight: 20%
Criteria linkages:
Criteria Weight (%) SLOs CILOs
Effective tangible 3D representation demonstrated in the accuracy of the assembled components of your foam model. 45 2 C.3
Accuracy, rigour and care shown in the details and surface finish of your foam model. 45 4 P.2
Demonstration of committed engagement and effective time management. 10 5 A.1
SLOs: subject learning objectives
CILOs: course intended learning outcomes

Assessment task 2: Investigation into volume using additive and subtractive methods - Vacuum Formed Pencil Box

Intent:

(Please refer to the Assessment 2 project brief and drawings provided in the subject documents area of UTS Online. It is not efficient to discuss this project without the relevant explanatory images, therefore the information provided inside the subject outline for this task serves only as an overview).

Aim

This project focuses on a manufacturing process that is widely used in products we encounter daily ‘vacuum forming’. It can be used for the manufacture of boats through to chocolate box liners. The process relies on two variables: the material and the design of the tooling to be used. Make vacuum forming tools/bucks/moulds as per the drawings supplied, form and trim shells to specifications.

Parameters

This project must be completed in 4 weeks. This will include 4 classes of 4 hours duration and then any time you require to put in out of class time. There are a limited number of machines so you will have to work efficiently within the opening hours of the workshop.

The basic vacuum forming process has three steps:

  1. Heating – where the plastic is softened
  2. Raising – where the tool is raised up to contact the plastic
  3. Forming – where the vacuum chamber is opened causing atmospheric pressure to push the plastic over the tool.

Making the tool

The first task in this project is to make the tooling that will form the pencil box. The design is appropriate for vacuum forming and you need to be able to understand the logic behind this design and see how it relates to the drawing and the final product.

Deliverables

These items are due at the conclusion of the project:

  • 2 x vacuum forming tools (bucks)
  • 2 x trimmed vacuum formed shells (mouldings)

Design Requirements

  • The following requirements apply to the making of your bucks/mouldings:
  • Understand the requirement for accuracy and attention to detail in the production of models and prototypes.
  • Effectively interpret engineering and workshop drawings.
  • Develop an understanding of the techniques to create 3D forms from 2D documentation.
  • Understand and operate measuring devices in order to measure and produce three-dimensional objects accurately.
  • Gain proficiency in the operation of workshop tools and equipment.
  • Understand vacuum forming as a workshop prototyping and production system.

Readings

Readings relevant to the Assessment Task have been provided on UTS Online as an integral resource. Refer to the program and your studio leader for advice concerning the appropriate reading to complete for each class.

Suggested Texts for This Assessment Task

Ashby, M.F., Johnson, K. & Knovel (Firm) 2010, Materials and design the art and science of material selection in product design, Butterworth-Heinemann.

Hallgrimsson, B. 2012,Prototyping and modelmaking for product design, Laurence King, London.

Lefteri, C. 2007, Making it : manufacturing techniques for product design, Laurence King, London.

Objective(s):

This task addresses the following subject learning objectives:

1, 2 and 3

This task also addresses the following course intended learning outcomes that are linked with a code to indicate one of the five CAPRI graduate attribute categories (e.g. C.1, A.3, P.4, etc.):

A.1 and P.2

Type: Laboratory/practical
Groupwork: Individual
Weight: 40%
Criteria linkages:
Criteria Weight (%) SLOs CILOs
Demonstrated attention to detail shown in the finish of the vac forming tools. 45 1 P.2
Accuracy, rigour and care evident in the measured dimensions and fit of the completed shell halves. 45 3 P.2
Demonstration of committed engagement and effective time management. 10 2 A.1
SLOs: subject learning objectives
CILOs: course intended learning outcomes

Assessment task 3: Investigation into volume through additive methods - Handheld Product

Intent:

Aim

This is a short, sharp introduction to product design that begins to link different communication techniques and the development of three-dimensional forms. You will design a handheld product; make a three-dimensional sectional model and surface representation.

You are to design an electric hair dryer or an electric drill. The design should take into account the user with particular focus on ergonomics. What size is it? How comfortable is it to hold and use? Where are the controls and what are their functions?

Parameters

The design should be developed through sketching at 1:1 in pencil or pen using a combination of orthographic views (front, top, side views) and perspective views. When the design is complete, produce a clean orthographic drawing (1:1) and two different views in perspective. From this orthographic drawing create section views along the major axes of your design. These views should be at 20mm increments starting as close to the end as possible.

Create your model using the section views you have developed. Cut each section out of card and then join them using a central stringer. You’ll need to plan where the stringer is located, its shape and thickness. Try to avoid leaving thin flexible/delicate parts on either stringer or sections. Consider how the joint will be made between stringer and section before cutting any material.

You are to design a skin that describes the surface of your product using the sections as the foundation. This will require experimentation to determine means of achieving transitions between shapes and description of possible compound curves. The final model should be clean and made as neatly as possible. Don’t discard early mistakes; they can often be used to generate a template for the next version.

Program

Week 1 - Brief, introduction to project and model making techniques to be used.

Week 2 - Conception – development of form function and features from your research through sketching and paper models.

Week 3 - Realisation – develop orthographic drawings and renderings/skin vision, plan and make model.

Week 4 - Delivery – present model and documentation.

(Use the class time wisely – 4 hours is half a working day!)

Deliverables

These items are due at the conclusion of the project:

  • Orthographic shop drawing
  • 2 x rendered perspective views
  • Sectional model with half skin

Design Requirements

The following requirements apply to the making of your bucks/mouldings:

  • Understand the requirement for accuracy and attention to detail in the production of models and prototypes.
  • Communicate your design through orthographic drawings.
  • Develop an understanding of the techniques to create 3D forms from 2D documentation.
  • Communicate your design through perspective drawings and renderings.

Suggested Texts for This Assessment Task

Hallgrimsson, B. 2012, Prototyping and modelmaking for product design, Laurence King, London.

Wallschlaeger, C., Busic-Snyder, C. & Morgan, M. 1992, Basic visual concepts and principles for artists, architects, and designers, Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, Iowa.

Wong, W. 1977, Principles of three-dimensional design, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York.

Objective(s):

This task addresses the following subject learning objectives:

1, 2 and 4

This task also addresses the following course intended learning outcomes that are linked with a code to indicate one of the five CAPRI graduate attribute categories (e.g. C.1, A.3, P.4, etc.):

A.1, C.2, C.3 and I.3

Type: Design/drawing/plan/sketch
Groupwork: Individual
Weight: 40%
Criteria linkages:
Criteria Weight (%) SLOs CILOs
Effective tangible 3D representation demonstrated through the quality and accuracy of the sectional model. 40 1 C.3
Development of an original aesthetic sensibility with consideration of ergonomics and the user. 20 2 I.3
Demonstration of effective visual thinking shown through sketches, shop drawings and renderings. 30 4 C.2
Demonstrated committed engagement and effective time management. 10 2 A.1
SLOs: subject learning objectives
CILOs: course intended learning outcomes

Required texts

Hallgrimsson, B., 2012, Prototyping and Modelmaking for Product Design, Laurence King, London.

References

Ashby, M.F., Johnson, K. & Knovel 2010, Materials and design :the art and science of material selection in product design, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

Fishel, C. 1999, Paper graphics, Rockport Publishers, Gloucester, Mass.

Fishel, C.M. 2002, The power of paper in graphic design, Rockport, Gloucester, Mass.

Hannah, G.G. 2002, Elements of design :Rowena Reed Kostellow and the structure of visual relationships, Princeton Architectural Press, New York, N.Y.

Helander, M. & Helander, M. 2006, A guide to human factors and ergonomics, CRC Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.

Lefteri, C. 2007, Making it :manufacturing techniques for product design, Laurence King, London.

Lesko, J. 2008, Industrial design :materials and manufacturing guide, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.

Martin, B. & Hanington, B.M. 2012, Universal methods of design :100 ways to research complex problems, develop innovative ideas, and design effective solutions, Rockport Publishers, Beverly, MA.

Milton, A. & Rodgers, P. 2013, Research methods for product design, Laurence king publishing; Laurence King Publishing, London; London; C©2013.

Otto, F. 1967; 1969, Tensile structures :design, structure, and calculation of buildings of cables, notes, and membranes, M.I.T. Press, Camb., Mass.

Radwin, R.G., Haney, J.T. & American Industrial Hygiene Association 1996, An ergonomics guide to hand tools, American Industrial Hygiene Association, Fairfax, Va.

Sutherland, M. 1999, Modelmaking :a basic guide, W.W. Norton, New York; London.

Thompson, R. 2007, Manufacturing processes for design professionals, Thames & Hudson, London.

Tilley, A.R. & Henry Dreyfuss Associates 2002, The measure of man and woman :human factors in design, Rev edn, Wiley, New York.

Trudeau, N. 1995, Professional modelmaking :a handbook of techniques and materials for architects and designers, Whitney Library of Design, New York.

Wallschlaeger, C., Busic-Snyder, C. & Morgan, M. 1992, Basic visual concepts and principles for artists, architects, and designers, Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, Iowa.

Wong, W. 1977, Principles of three-dimensional design, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York.